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Class 11 Chemistry Ch-14 Environmental Chemistry (VSQ)

Q.1. Name the different regions of the atmosphere alongwith their altitudes.

Answer Answer: Troposphere (0-10 km, stratosphere (10-50 km), mesosphere (50-85 km), thermosphere (85 – 500 km).

Q.2. In what regions of the atmosphere, the temperature increases with altitude and in which regions it decreases?

Answer Answer: Temperature increases with altitude in stratosphere and thermosphere while it decreases in troposphere and mesosphere.

Q.3. What gas leaked to bring havoc in Bhopal tragedy?

Answer Answer: Methyl isocyanate (MIC).

Q.4. What is the %age of CO2 in the pure dry air?

Answer Answer: About 0. 032%.

Q.5. Name three gases which are major air pollutants.

Q.6. What is the most important sink of CO pollutant?

Answer Answer: Soil micro–organism.

Q.7. What is the compound formed when CO combines with blood?

Answer Answer: Carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO).

Q.8. What is anoxia or asphyxiation?

Answer Answer: Acute oxygen starvation in the body (due to CO poisoning) is called anoxia or asphyxiation.

Q.9. How are NO and NO2 formed in the atmosphere?

Answer Answer: NO is formed due to reaction between N2 and O2 during lightning or combustion of fossil fuels. It is further oxidized to NO2.

Q.10. How are fuel gases from industries freed from oxides of nitrogen and sulphur?

Answer Answer: By scrubbing them with conc. H2SO4 or with alkaline solutions like Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2.

Q.11. What is chlorosis?

Answer Answer: Slowing down the formation of chlorophyll in plants due to presence of SO2 as pollutant is called chlorosis.

Q.12. What is the size range of particulates?

Answer Answer: 5 nm to 500,000 nm.

Q.13. What type of aromatic compounds are present as particulates in the air?

Answer Answer: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).

Q.14. Who are the people who usually suffer from ‘black lung disease’ and who are those who suffer from ‘white lung disease’?

Answer Answer: Coal miners suffer from black lung disease and textile workers suffer from white lung disease.

Q15. How particulates help in the cloud formation?

Answer Answer: They act as nuclei for cloud formation.

Q.16. Which zone is called ozonosphere?

Answer Answer: Stratosphere.

Q.17. Which main compounds are causing damage to ozone layer?

Answer Answer: NO and freons.

Q.18. Which gaseous species are present in the mesosphere and thermosphere?

Answer Answer: Gaseous ions like NO+, O2+, N2+, O+ and atoms of N and O.

Q.19. Which disease is caused due to hole in the ozone layer and why?

Answer Answer: Ultraviolet rays will reach the earth after passing through the hole and cause skin cancer.

Q.20. What is the composition of ‘London smog or reducing smog’?

Answer Answer: Fog of H2SO4 droplets deposited on the particulates.

Q.21. In which season and of what time of the day, there is ‘London smog or reducing smog’ ?

Answer Answer: In winter during the morning hours.

Q.22. What is the nature of ‘London smog’ ?

Answer Answer: Reducing.

Q.23. In which season and what time of the day, there is photochemical smog?

Answer Answer: In summer, in the afternoon.

Q.24. Which acids are present in the acid rain?

Answer Answer: H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl.

Q.25. Name two important sinks of CO2 .

Answer Answer: Oceans (which dissolve it) and plants (which use it for photosynthesis).

Q.26. What is marine pollution?

Answer Answer: Pollution of sea water due to discharge of wastes into it is called marine pollution.

Q.27. What type of pollution affects the sea–birds?

Answer Answer: Oil water pollution.

Q.28. What are the main sources of thermal pollution?

Answer Answer: Thermal power plants and nuclear plants.

Q.29. Why COD is preferred over BOD ?

Answer Answer: COD can be found in a few minutes whereas BOD requires at least 5 days.

Q.30. What is humification?

Answer Answer: The decomposition of organic material (leaves, roots etc.) in the soil by microorganism to produce humus is called humification.

Q.31. What should be the tolerable limit of fluoride ions in drinking water? What happens if it is higher than 10 ppm ?

Answer Answer: 1 ppm or 1 mg dm–3. Higher concentration is harmful to bones and teeth.

Q.32. Name any four methods for waste management.

Answer Answer: Recycling, burning, incineration and sewage treatment.

Q.33. What is the nature of ‘photochemical smog’?

Answer Answer: It is oxidizing in nature.

Q.34. Name of source of energy which does not create pollution.

Answer Answer: Sun is source of energy which does not create pollution.

Q.35. What are PCBs?

Answer Answer: PCBs are polychlorinated biphenyls

Q.36. What are polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs)?

Answer Answer: Polar stratospheric clouds. PSC’s are formed over Antarctica. They are of two types:
Type I clouds contain some solidified nitric acid trihydrate (HNO3, 3H2O) formed at –77°C.

Type II clouds contain some ice, formed at –85°C These clouds play an important role in ozone depletion.

Q.37. What is meant by polar vortex?

Answer Answer: Polar vortex. When polar stratospheric clouds are formed over Antarctica during winters, stable wind patterns in the stratosphere are called polar vortex which encircle the continent.

Q.38. What is effect of excess of SO42– ion in drinking water?

Answer Answer: Excess of SO42– in drinking water (>500 ppm) may cause a laxative effect.

Q.39. Write the name of gas produced in Mathura refineries which can damage the great historical monument “Taj Mahal”?

Answer Answer: Sulphur dioxide.

Q.40. What type of radiations are absorbed by CO2 in the atmosphere?

Answer Answer: Infrared radiations.

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