Q1. What changes can you make in your habits to become more environment-friendly?
Ans. (i) Do not throw garbage on the road side.
(ii) Switch off lights, fans, TV when not required.
(iii) Use less water for bathing, washing jobs.
(iv) Use jute bags instead of polyethene.
(v) Walk or cycle to cover short distances.
Q2. What would be the advantages of exploiting resources with short-term aims?
Ans. Exploitation of resources with short-term aims means misuse of the resource and harm to the earth.
Q3. How would these advantages differ from the advantages of using a long-term perspective in managing our resources?
Ans. In long-term perspective we are managing the resources in such a way that we are accountable for its misuse. We use it wisely and let the future generation also get its benefit of using. Pollution is controlled and minimised.
Q4. Why do you think there should be equitable distribution of resources? What forces would be working against an equitable distribution of our resources?
Ans. Equitable distribution of resources will help the resources reach every individual in
cheaper and easier way. The people who need to obtain only money out of these resources would work against it.
Q5. Why should we conserve forests and wildlife?
Ans. Conservation of forest is important as forest is useful to us in many ways:
(i) Provides raw material for timber industry.
(ii) Prevents soil erosion and flood.
(iii) Provides medicines, herbs, gum, resin.
(iv) Provides habitat to many animals.
(v) Maintain water-cycle by bringing rain fall.
Wildlife conservation is important because:
(i) It maintains ecological balance in nature.
(ii) It also maintains the forests by facilitating growth of plants in different places by dispersing seeds.
(iii) By grazing grass it also maintains the soil fertility.
(iv) It also helps in cleaning of forest.
Q6. Suggest some approaches towards the conservation of forests.
Ans. For conservation of forests:
(i) It should be checked that illegal cutting of trees is banned and made a punishable act.
(ii) Stakeholders should take care of the maintenance of the forest.
(iii) Forest fires should be checked and controlled.
(iv) Nearby villages or people should be trained and educated to manage forests.
Q7. Find out about the traditional systems of water harvesting/management in your region.
Ans. The traditional systems of water harvesting management:
• Bandharas and tals in Maharashtra
• Bundhis in Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
• Kulhs in Himachal Pradesh
• Khadins, tanks and nadis in Rajasthan.
• Ahars and pynes in Bihar.
Q8. Compare the above system with the probable systems in hilly/mountainous areas or plains or plateau regions.
Ans. Water harvesting system in hilly and mountainous areas is different from plains and from plateau region.
For e.g., in hilly areas like Himachal Pradesh a local system of irrigation was developed
called kulhs. The water flowing in the streams was diverted into man-made channels
which took this water to numerous villages down the hillside.
Whereas water in plains is collected in check dams or tanks, tals or bundhis.
Q9. Find out the source of water in your region/locality. Is water from this source available to all people living in that area?
Ans. The source of water in our region is municipality supply of water and from under ground i.e. ground water. There is scarcity of water during summer season and most people don’t have access to water.
Q1. What changes would you suggest in your home in order to be environment-friendly?
Ans. The following changes can be made to be environment friendly:
(i) Check the wastage of water, close the taps properly, recycle the water of washing machine into toilets.
(ii) Stop the use of bulbs and switch over to CFL lights.
(iii) Use solar water heater and cookers, install solar cell panel for electricity.
(iv) Reduce the garbage by not throwing such items which can be reused and recycled.
Q2. Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment-friendly?
Ans. (i) Recycle the waste paper thrown instead of dumping it in garbage.
(ii) Rain water harvesting system should be made.
(iii) Plant more and more trees.
(iv) Make compost of bio-mass collected like food waste, fallen leaves etc.
Q3. We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?
Ans. The local people staying near the forest should be given the authority to decide the management of forest produce. They can keep a check on and control the misuse of the forest and its goods. They are the ones who do not exploit the forest and they know how to manage so it stays there for their future generations to come.
Q4. How can you as an individual contribute or make a difference to the management of
(a) forests and wildlife, (b) water resources and (c) coal and petroleum?
Ans. (a) Forests and wildlife: Use less paper, do not waste paper, as trees are cut down to make it. Do not buy any animal products which are made by killing them like
fur, skin, tusk, horn etc.
(b) Water resources: Use buckets to take bath instead of shower. Recycle the water from washing machine for toilets use.
(c) Coal and petroleum: Use public transport or use the transport that uses CNG. Switch off lights, minimise the use of air-conditioner, room heater etc.
Q5. What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural
Ans. By following 3 R’s
(a) Reduce: Reduce or minimise the use of resources, by saving electricity by switching off unnecessary lights and fans etc. and by walking whenever possible.
(b) Recycle: Collect and recycle the products like plastic, paper, glass and metal.
(c) Reuse: It is better than recycle. Instead of throwing used envelopes. We can reverse it and use it again. The plastic and glass containers, bottles can be reused.
Q6. List five things you have done over the last one week to:
(a) Conserve our natural resources.
(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources.
Ans. (a) To conserve our natural resources: I preferred walking to the nearby places or cycling instead of going by a car. Switched off lights when not required. Minimised the use of water and checked the extra flow of water.
(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources: I used air conditioner. Shopped for new clothes.
Q7. On the basis of the issues raised in this chapter, what changes would you incorporate in your life style in a move towards a sustainable use of our resources?
Ans. To save various resources. I would follow 3R’s reduce, reuse and recycle. Minimize the use of coal and petroleum switch over to CNG and use electrical equipments at the minimum.
Do not waste paper and water. I will not buy goods made by killing animals like fur, leather, tusk, etc.