Electromagnetic Induction

What is Electromagnetic Induction?

It was discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831.

It is the phenomenon of generating an emf by changing the number of magnetic field lines (i.e. magnetic flux) associated with the circuit.

We have studied that moving charges or current produces magnetic field. Then normally we get a doubt whether the converse of this is also true?

Does nature permit such a symmetrical relation?

In 1820, the connection between electricity and magnetism was demonstrated by Faraday and independently by Joseph Henry.

Two physicists Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry demonstrated the fact that changing magnetic fields and electric currents with the help of the following simple experiments.

If we bring a magnet near a coil connected with a galvanometer, the galvanometer shows deflection indicating flow of current in the coil. This current flow as long as the magnet is moving, i.e. the magnetic flux through the coil is changing. Once the magnet becomes stationary, the current stops.

If we take two coils wound on an iron cylinder, one fitted with a battery and a switch, the other fitted with a galvanometer, when switch is closed, current increases from zero to its maximum value. During this brief time, the galvanometer deflects showing flow of current. The changing currents in coil (1) gives rise to a changing magnetic field which induces an emf and a current in the coil (2). This phenomenon of inducing electricity by changing magnetic field is known as electromagnetic induction.

The result of these experiments led to a very basic and important law of electromagnetism known as Faraday’s law of induction.

You may also want to check out these concept related to electromagnetic induction:

Applications of Electromagnetic Induction

  • AC generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
  • Transformers works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.

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