Class 10 Science Life Processes Notes

IMPORTANT NOTES

PG logo with course.JPG1. Every living organism has a need of nutrition as it is through nutrition that one obtains energy. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG2. The process of intake and utilisation of nutrients (i.e. substances that either release energy or help in the manufacture of bio-molecules) is known as nutrition. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG3. Green plants are autotrophs as they synthesize their own food using sunlight, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide and water. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG4. Photosynthetic equation:
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PG logo with course.JPG5. Chlorophyll is a light receiver which can trap solar energy within its molecule. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG6. The site of chlorophyll activity is the special plant cell organelles called chloroplasts.

PG logo with course.JPG7. In humans the alimentary canal is basically a long tube extending from the mouth to the anus. When we eat something we like, our mouth ‘waters’. This watery fluid is called saliva secreted by the salivary glands. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG8. The gastric glands present in the stomach wall of human, release hydrochloric acid, pepsin and mucus. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG9. Tooth decay or dental carries causes gradual softening of enamel and dentine. Brushing the teeth after eating removes the dental plaque. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG10. Factors that affect photosynthesis are (i) Light, (ii) Temperature, (iii) Water, and (iv) Carbon dioxide. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG11. Animal nutrition shows a very wide range. Unicellular organisms like Amoeba obtain food by the process of phagocytosis. The human digestive system climaxes the evolutionary development of the digestive system with numerous glands, digestive juices and organs working together. The various steps of nutrition are ingestion, digestion, absorption and assimilation. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG12. The energy-rich molecule in which energy is first captured is adenosine tri-phosphate or ATP. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG13. Breathing is a physical process which involves inhalation and exhalation. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG14. Respiration is a biochemical process which includes breathing and oxidation of food. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG15. Respiration in the presence of oxygen is known as aerobic respiration. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG. Respiration that occurs in absence of oxygen is known as anaerobic respiration. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG17. During aerobic respiration, food (glucose) is completely broken down into carbon dioxide and oxygen and energy is released in the form of ATP. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG18. Aerobic respiration occurs in higher organisms including human being. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG19. Anaerobic respiration occurs in certain bacteria, yeast and also in our muscles. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG20. The muscles of vertebrate animals can continue working for a minute or two without oxygen. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG21. Micro-organisms such as yeast and certain bacteria obtain their energy by anaerobic respiration which is termed fermentation. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG22. Common type of fermentation is alcoholic fermentation which is performed by yeast. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG23. Direct respiration is seen in unicellular organisms like Amoeba, Paramecium, bacteria and Chlamydomonas. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG24. Diffusion is defined as the movement of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG25. Rate of respiration in plants is much slower than in animals. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG26. In higher plants, the exchange of gases occurs through stomata and lenticels. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG27. Organs of respiration in animals are skin, trachea, gills, lungs, etc. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG28. Thin-walled air sacs called alveoli are present in lungs. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG29. The blood contains a pigment, haemoglobin, which helps in the transport of carbon dioxide and oxygen. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG30. In human beings, four basic processes are involved in respiration—breathing, gaseous transport, tissue respiration and cellular respiration. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG31. In the thoracic cavity, the lungs are bound by a convex muscular and elastic sheet called diaphragm. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG32. Diffusion is a major method by which transportation of material occurs in single celled organisms like bacteria. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG33. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from a region of higher concentration to that of lower concentration resulting in their uniform distribution. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG34. The entire surface of the root is not associated with absorption of water and nutrients. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG35. Only 1% to 2% of the total water absorbed by the roots, is used up in photosynthesis and metabolic activities. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG36. The main process involved in the upward conduction of water and minerals is called transpiration. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG37. Through transpiration pull, movement of water and minerals take place. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG38. The transportation of food from the leaves to other plant parts is termed translocation. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG39. In case of plants, xylem is made of tracheids and vessels. Both are thick walled with
perforations in their cell wall. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG40. Water and mineral salts are absorbed by root hair and are transported in the plant by xylem vessels which are long interconnected tubes. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG41. Transpirational pull works as a suction force for the upward movement of the sap.PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG42. Long distance transportation of food material from the leaves to the other parts of the plant is known as ‘translocation’. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG43. Phloem is the living tissue that translocates prepared food in aqueous solution. Phloem is made of living cells called ‘sieve tubes’. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG44. In human beings the main transporter is the blood which flows in blood vessels and is pumped by the heart. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG45.

Blood Vessels

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Blood Vessels

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PG logo with course.JPG47. Lymph: Lymph is also known as tissue fluid. It is another type of fluid involved in transportation. It is colourless and contains less protein. Some amount of plasma, proteins and blood-cells escape into intercellular spaces in the tissues in the form of lymph. It drains into lymphatic capillaries from the intercellular spaces. It drains excess fluid from the extra cellular space back into the blood. Lymph carries digested as well as absorbed fat from the intestine. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG48. The pathway indicating the flow of blood within the human heart. The right half of the heart always has deoxygenated blood while the left half has only oxygenated blood.

PG logo with course.JPG49. As the blood flows, a part of it gets filtered out of the capillary walls. This forms the lymph.
Lymph — carries digested fats.
— returns proteins and other fluids for circulation.
— lymphocytes contribute towards immunity.

PG logo with course.JPG50. The waste products in animals include carbon dioxide, nitrogenous compounds like ammonia, urea and uric acid, bile pigments from the breakdown of haemoglobin, excess salts and vitamins. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG51. The most poisonous of all waste by-products of metabolism is ammonia. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG52. The kidneys extract urea from the blood and excrete it from the body as part of a liquid called urine. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG53. Excretion of waste products is very simple and much less in plants as compared to animals. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG54. Excretory system of human, mainly consists of a pair of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, etc. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG55. Excretory organs in animals are lungs, skin, kidneys and liver. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG56. An artificial kidney machine works on the principle of dialysis. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG57. Dialysis is a process of separating small molecules from larger ones using a semipermeable membrane. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG58. Bowman’s capsule is a cup shaped body enclosing glomerulus part of a nephron. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG59. Glomerulus is a network of finely divided blood capillaries enclosed in Bowman’s capsule. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG60. Structural and functional unit of kidney is nephron. The parts of a nephron are (a) a tuft of capillaries called ‘glomerulus’, (b) Bowman’s capsule, (c) extended tubular system and a collecting duct. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG61. Carbon dioxide produced during respiration is carried by (i) haemoglobin in the blood and, (ii) water in which it gets dissolved. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG62. The kidneys perform two major functions—(i) help to remove toxic wastes like urea from the blood and thereby clean the blood, (ii) control water balance and levels of mineral salts in the body. PG logo with course.JPG

PG logo with course.JPG63. The filtration of blood for the removal of wastes can be done by an artificial kidney, in cases of renal failure. Such a system is called ‘Dialysis’. PG logo with course.JPG

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