An electric dipole is a system consisting of two electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign that are separated by a distance. The product of positive charge and the separation between the charges is referred to as the dipole moment, which is a vector quantity pointing from the negative charge to the positive charge.
Electric dipoles are fundamental to the understanding of many physical phenomena, from the behavior of atoms and molecules to the interaction of electric fields with matter.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the strength of the dipole and is given by:
p = q x d
where q is the magnitude of each charge and d is the separation between the charges. The direction of the dipole moment points from the negative charge to the positive charge.
Numerical Problems Based on Electric Dipole for Class 12 Physics
Here we are providing numerical problems based on Electric Dipole for Class 12 Physics
Q.1. A dipole consisting of an electron and a proton separated by a distance of 4 × 10-10m is situated in an electric field of intensity 3 × 10-5 NC-1 at an angle of 30° with the field. Calculate the dipole moment and the torque acting on it. Charge on an electron = 1.602 × 10-19 C.
(Ans. 6.41 × 10-29 C m, 9.615 × 10-24 Nm)
Q.2. An electric dipole is formed by +4μC and -4μC charges at 5 mm distance. Calculate the dipole moment and give its direction.
(Ans. 2 × 10“8 Cm, from -ve to +ve charge)
Q.3. Calculate the field due to an electric dipole of length 10 cm and consisting of charges of ±100 μC at a point 20 cm from each charge.
(Ans. 1.125 ×107 NC-1)
Q.4. An electric dipole of dipole moment 4 × 10-3C m is placed in a uniform electric field of 10-13 NC-1 making an angle of 30° with the direction of the field. Determine the torque exerted by the electric field on the dipole.
(Ans. 2 × 10-8 Nm)