Electric potential, also known as voltage, is a scalar quantity that represents the amount of electric potential energy per unit charge that is present at a point in space.
In other words, it is the amount of work that would be required to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a given point in an electric field, without any acceleration.
The SI unit of electric potential is volts (V).
A potential difference of one volt between two points in an electric field means that one joule of work would be required to move one coulomb of charge from one point to the other.
Electric potential is a fundamental concept in electricity and plays a central role in the study of electric circuits, electrostatics, and electromagnetism. It is also important in understanding the behavior of various electrical devices such as batteries, capacitors, and generators.
For a Point Charge, V = kq/r
Numerical Problems Based on Electric Potential for Class 12 Physics
Q.1. The work done in moving a charge of 3 C between two points is 6J. What is the potential difference between the two points?
(Ans. 2 V)
Q.2. The electric potential at 0.9 m from a point charge is + 50 V. What is the magnitude and sign of the charge?
(Ans. 5 × 10-9 C, positive)
Q.3. A hollow metal sphere is charged with 0.4 μC of charge and has a radius of 0.1 m. Find the potential (i) at the surface (ii) inside the sphere (iii) at a distance of 0.6 m from the centre. The sphere is placed in air.
(Ans. 36 kV, 36 kV, 6 kV)
Q.4. Two point charges q and -2q are kept ‘d’ distance apart. Find the location of the point relative to charge ‘q’ at which potential due to this system of charges is zero.
(Ans. At distance d / 3 from charge q)
Q.5. Charges of 2.0 × 10-6 C and 1.0 × 10-6C are placed at the corners A and B of a square of side 5.0 cm as shown in Fig. How much work will be done in moving a charge of 1.0 × 10-6C from C to D against the electric field?
(Ans. 0.053 J)
Why Students Fear Numerical Problems in Class 12 Physics?
The exam pattern for of previous exams generally consists of straightforward numerical problems that require students to apply basic mathematical concepts to solve problems. However, some common reasons for students’ fear of numerical problems in this class include:
- Lack of practice: Students need to practice solving numerical problems regularly to build their confidence and understanding of the concepts. The exam pattern for Class 10 Science is relatively easy, but students need to ensure they are well-prepared for the exam by practicing regularly.
- Fear of making mistakes: Since the exam pattern for Class 10 Science includes numerical problems, students may fear making mistakes while solving problems. Teachers should encourage students to understand the problem statement carefully and double-check their calculations to minimize errors.
- Lack of conceptual clarity: Students may struggle with numerical problems if they do not have a clear understanding of the concepts involved. Teachers should ensure that students understand the fundamental concepts related to numerical problems to avoid confusion.
- Difficulty in understanding the problem: Sometimes, students may struggle to understand the problem statement or may not know which formula to use. Teachers should guide students on how to identify the correct formula and approach to solve numerical problems.
How to Prepare for Numerical Problems in Class 12 Physics?
Here are some tips for effective preparation:
- Build a Strong Foundation: Students should ensure that they have a clear understanding of the underlying concepts involved in numerical problems. They should review their notes regularly and seek clarification from teachers if they have any doubts.
- Practice Regularly: Solving numerical problems regularly is crucial to build confidence and improve problem-solving skills. Students should practice a variety of problems to develop their understanding of different concepts and formulas.
- Focus on Understanding: Instead of rote memorization, students should focus on understanding the steps involved in solving numerical problems. This approach will help them tackle more complex problems.
- Check for Mistakes: After solving numerical problems, students should double-check their calculations and identify any mistakes. This practice will help them avoid making careless errors and increase their accuracy.
- Seek Help: If students are struggling with a particular concept or problem, they should seek help from teachers, tutors, or classmates. Clarifying doubts early on can prevent confusion and frustration later.
- Mock Tests: Mock tests can help students assess their preparedness and identify areas for improvement. Students should take mock tests regularly and analyze their performance to identify weak areas.