Following questions consist of two statements – Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Answer these questions selecting the appropriate option given below:
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
(c) A is true but R is false.
(d) A is false but R is true.
Q.1. Assertion (A) : Plants lack excretory organs.
Reason (R) : Plants usually absorb essential nutrients.
Q.2. Assertion (A) : In anaerobic respiration, one of the end product is alcohol.
Reason (R) : There is an incomplete breakdown of glucose.
Q.3. Assertion (A) : In plants there is no need of specialised respiratory organs.
Reason (R) : Plants do not have great demands of gaseous exchange.
Q.4. Assertion (A) : Bile is essential for digestion of lipids.
Reason (R) : Bile juice contains enzymes.
Q.5. Assertion (A) : Carbohydrate digestion mainly takes place in small intestine.
Reason (R) : Pancreatic juice contains the enzyme lactase.
Q.6. Assertion (A) : Aerobic respiration requires less energy as compared to anaerobic respiration.
Reason (R) : Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell.
Q.7. Assertion (A): Arteries are thick-walled and elastic in nature.
Reason (R) : Arteries have to transport blood away from the heart.
Q.8. Assertion (A) : Human heart is four-chambered.
Reason (R) : Vena cava is the only artery that supplies deoxygenated blood to the heart.
Q.9. Assertion (A): Energy is required to carry out different life processes.
Reason (R) : Energy is obtained in the form of ATP in the mitochondria.
Q.10. Assertion (A): Rings of cartilage are present in the throat,
Reason (R) : These ensure that the air-passage does not collapse
Q.11. Assertion (A): Pyruvate is a six-carbon molecule
Reason (R) : It is prepared in the cytoplasm as the first step to cellular respiration
Q.12. Assertion (A): Molecular movements are needed for life.
Reason (R): Body structures made up of these molecules need continuous repair and maintenance
Q.13. Assertion (A): Diffusion does not meet high energy requirements of multi-cellular organisms
Reason (R) : Diffusion is a fast process but occurs at the surface of the body.
Q.14. Assertion (A): The opening and closing of the pore is a function of the guard cells.
Reason (R) : Stomatal pores are the site for exchange of gases by diffusion.
Q.15. Assertion (A): The purpose of making urine is to filter out undigested food from intestine
Reason (R): Kidneys filter the waste and produce urine,
Q.16. Assertion (A): The inner lining of the small intestine has numerous finger-like projections called villi.
Reason (R) : The villi increase the surface area for absorption.
Q.17. Assertion (A): In human beings, the respiratory pigment is haemoglobin
Reason (R) : It is a type of protein which has high-affinity carbon dioxide.
Q.18. Assertion : The plants store some of the waste products in their body parts.
Reason: Raphides are the solid waste products of plants.
Q.19. Assertion : The movement of water and dissolved salts in xylem is always upwards.
Reason: ‘The upward movement of water is due to low pressure created by transpiration.
Q.20. Assertion : Photosynthesis takes place in green parts of the plants.
Reason: Photosynthesis always takes place in leaves.
Q.21. Assertion: The average number of heart beat of a person at rest is about 80 per minute.
Reason: One contraction and relaxation of the heart constitutes a complete heart beat.
Q.22. Assertion : Ureters are the tubes which carry urine from kidneys to the bladder.
Reason: Urine is stored in the urethra.
Q.23. Assertion : Ventricles have thicker walls than auricles.
Reason: Ventricles have to pump blood into various organs with great pressure
Q.24. Assertion : Capillaries are the thinnest blood vessels.
Reason: Capillaries connect the branches of arteries and veins.
Q.25. Assertion : Blood takes up oxygen from the alveolar air and release CO2 during exchange.
Reason: ‘The concentration of O, is more in alveolar air.
Q.26. Assertion: The large intestine is the largest part of the alimentary canal.
Reason: Tiger has a shorter small intestine, than herbivores.
Q.27. Assertion : Most of the living organisms carry out aerobic respiration.
Reason: Mitochondria is the site of aerobic respiration in the cell.
Q.28. Assertion : The Bowman’s capsule and the tubule together make a nephron.
Reason : The function of tubule is to allow the selective reabsorption of substances like glucose, amino
acids, urea, salts and water into the blood capillaries.
Q.29. Assertion : Pancreatic juice digests starch, proteins and fats.
Reason: Pancreatic juice contains digestive enzymes like pancreatic amylase, trypsin and lipase.
Q.30. Assertion: The accumulation of lactic acid in the muscles causes muscle cramps.
Reason: During vigorous physical exercise leg muscles respire anaerobically.
Q.31. Assertion : Phloem helps in translocation of food from the leaves.
Reason: Phloem provides mechanical support to plant.
Q.32. Assertion : Trachea does not collapse, when there is no air in it.
Reason : Trachea is supported by cartilage.